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Sixth International Mining Geology Conference

Conference Proceedings

Sixth International Mining Geology Conference

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Susceptibility and Gamma-Gamma Probe Measurements in Boreholes for Ore Boundary Determinations in LKAB's Iron Ore Mine in Malmberget, Northern Sweden

LKAB operates two underground mines in Kiruna and Malmberget, Sweden. Blast furnace pellet is the main product and makes up 70 per cent of total production. The orebodies are hosted by 1910 - 1860 Ma old volcanic rocks. The host rocks and the ores were affected by the Svecokarelian orogeny for 1890 - 1860 Ma ago. The deposit belongs to the Kiruna type apatite-rich iron ore. Magnetite is the main ore mineral but haematite is the dominant ore mineral in some orebodies in the western part of the deposit. Large-scale sublevel caving is the dominant mining method. Three main haulage levels are in operation at present. The ore boundaries and quality can be detected by geophysical logging resulting in reduced waste dilution and subsequent grade reduction. The susceptibility measurements have been used in the magnetite ore since 1991 and gamma-gamma measurements in the haematite ore since 1998._x000D_
The mining scale has increased during the last 20 years but diamond drilling has remained at approximately 18 000 drilling metres per year. Uncertainties in the ore constructions can lead to unexpected cost increases, ore loss and dilution. The ore boundaries are evaluated with percussion drill holes using in-hole geophysics to achieve satisfactory geological knowledge. The probes are calibrated in all currently mined orebodies. The correlation between core sample assays and measured susceptibility and gamma-gamma values is strong. The cost to determine the ore boundary by percussion drilling with in-hole geophysics is two-thirds lower, and productivity is six times higher compared to diamond drilling. The measurements are made by geotechnicians and the interpretations by a geologist. The results are transferred to a database and presented three dimensionally as holes with iron grade intervals on mine maps. The interpreted holes are used by the geologist in various ways in the geological modelling. Layout planning uses the measurements as a tool to place the drifts at the correct distance from the ore contact especially in the longitudinal sublevel caving and the production hole planning to optimise the final length of the cross-cuts and drifts for best ore recovery._x000D_
FORMAL CITATION:Virkkunen, R, 2006. Susceptibility and gamma-gamma probe measurements in boreholes for ore boundary determinations in LKAB's iron ore mine in Malmberget, Northern Sweden, in Proceedings Sixth International Mining Geology Conference, pp 241-250 (The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy: Melbourne).
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  • Susceptibility and Gamma-Gamma Probe Measurements in Boreholes for Ore Boundary Determinations in LKAB's Iron Ore Mine in Malmberget, Northern Sweden
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  • Published: 2005
  • PDF Size: 2.571 Mb.
  • Unique ID: P200606027

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